What is ADHD ?

So there has been a lot of speculation lately around a “disease” called ADHD.
In this article I am going to cover the definition ADHD: causes, symptoms, treatment and different types of ADHD.

So, what does ADHD stand for?
ADHD is an acronym for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

Essentially, ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder; an impairment of the growth and development of the brain and the central nervous system. Sometimes the term is used to refer to a disorder of brain functions that affect abilities such as learning, emotion and memory in an individual. ADHD develops as the subject matures.

There are number of causes for neurodevelopmental disorders.
These are :

-enviromental factors
-genetic diseases
-metabolic diseases
-toxic factors
-infectious disease
-immune disorders
-nutritional factors
-physical trauma
-emotional trauma

The causes of ADHD are unknown in the majority of cases, although it’s one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders in subjects under 19 years old.

Most predominant contributing factors to the disease are:
-enviromental aspects
It can be inherited.
It involves multiple polygenic genes that affect neurotransmitter transporters.
The neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine are involved.

ADHD can be divided it into three types(or subtypes) according to its symptoms:
-predominantly inattentive
-predominantly hyperactive-impulse
-a combination of first 2 types

Predominantly inattentive ADHD forms a chapter of its own. Usually it is known as ADD or ADHD-I.

The main symptoms are the same in children and adults, but in adults the same symptoms manifest differently.
The diagnoses of ADHD in children and adults takes some time, at least six months.
There are different standards used for the diagnoses:
– DSM-IV criteria
– ICD-10 criteria

The DSM-IV criteria produces 3 to 5 times more ADHD diagnostics than ICD-10 when applied.
There is criticism that ADHD was invented and not discovered. Adults and children are diagnosed using the same criteria. The diagnosis is conducted by qualified professionals.

In children there is a reported shrinkage in brain volume.
ADHD is diagnosed purely by behaviour. Brain scans and imaging techniques cannot be used in ADHD because there isn’t a definitive¬† pattern between individuals’s brains that suffer from ADHD.

ADHD affects 6 to 7 percent of children when diagnosed using the DSM-IV method and 1 to 2 percentage when using the ICD-10 method. ADHD is up to three times more common in boys than in girls. Between 20 and 50 of people diagnosed with ADHD in childhood have symptoms that continue into adulthood. A small percentage of adults (1 to 4) have the disorder.

Treatment of ADHD involves therapy and medication. ADHD therapy and ADHD medications can be either combined or taken alone. Medicating preschool children is not recommended as the effects of the drugs on human beings of such age cannot be accurately recorded.ADHD medication’s long term side effects are discussed as we speak, especially for stimulant based medication. Opinions are divided and studies show differing and sometimes opposing results.

There are different types of ADHD medication:
-stimulants (varied)
-medicine for blood pressure

IN SHORT,THE FACTS: ADHD is a disorder that is mysterious even for doctors. Go to two different doctors that use different criteria for diagnosing and testing, one will find that you suffer from ADHD, the other won’t. And the medications they’ll give you only treat the symptoms not the cause.

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